domingo, 5 de mayo de 2013

Entry #4 APA Citation Form

APA Citation Form
Moyano, Federico E.

APA Style

            The American Psychological Association is a large community of scientists and professionals in The United States. In order to avoid problems such as plagiarism, using and taking full credit of other’s ideas, this organization developed a system to clarify communication through a clear organization of the format and through producing clear and accurate reference citations to support facts.

          CITATION RULES                                        

            The focus of this summary is very much on Citation Rules based on APA style. Therefore, this text has a pragmatic approach in order to make possible a quick comprehensible reading for those who are interested in this academic style. The citation requires to be on the correct formatting: This means that the text needs Times new Roman type format, and also requires the correct indentation, and double- spacing and the same margins (1 inch of each side of the page)  



If we want to cite a book we have to include the Author’s last name followed by a comma, and the Author’s initial name followed by a period. In case we have more than one author, we have to include them in alphabetical order. Nevertheless, The APA style only allows up to seven authors by citation, so in case we have more authors than what it is legally allowed we include the first six authors, followed by ellipsis and we include the last author in alphabetical order. This formula is applied to all the citations in reference to the quoting of authors. We include the author’s followed by the year of publication in parenthesis followed by a period.  There is a possibility that an author would appear twice as a reference but with different productions. In that case, we repeat the whole reference and we order the authors chronologically.

Author, A. (Year of publication).

Author, A.A, Buthor, B.B. (Year of publication).

Author, A.A. Buthor, B.B, Cuthor, C.C, Duthor, D.D, Euthor, E.E, Feuthor, F.F.… Zuthor, Z.Z. (Year of publication).

Author, A. (Year1).
           Author, A  (Year2).   


The quoting of books in order to support a fact has to follow the APA rules that are shown below. We include the author followed by a comma and the year of publication followed by a period. The title of the specific work has to be in italics and followed by a period. The location followed by colon and last but not least, the Publishing house.

Author, A.A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capitol letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher. 


            Citing articles have almost the same logical patterns that books have. We act in accordance as above, we include the author, comma and the year of publication followed by a period. Then, we write the title of the article followed by a period. In italic text type, we add the title of the Journal followed by a comma and we include the volume number. The issue number has to be in parenthesis followed by a comma. Finally, we add the pages followed by a period.

Ex- 6:
Author, A.A. (date). Title of article. Title of periodical,  volume number (issue number), pages.


            Citing magazines follows the same logical order that citing from articles. In italics text type we include the title of the magazine followed by a comma, and the volume followed by a comma and we add the pages in normal text type followed by a period.

Author, A. (date). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume, pages.

            In order to quote from newspapers we add: author, year , title of article and the title of the Newspaper italicized followed by a comma. Finally, we add the page numbers.
Author, A. (date). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, page number(s)


            Citing an entry from an Encyclopedia has the following structure: We introduce the exact formula we have been using before {Author, A. (Year). Title of the article.} Thus, we include the name of the Encyclopedia italicized  followed by a comma, in parenthesis we add the volume followed by a comma and the page numbers, we have to remember to include the city of publication followed by a comma .We complete the reference by adding the state of publication followed by colon and the publishing house.

            Author, A.A. (date). Title of the article. In the Encyclopedia, (Volume, page numbers). city of publication, state of publication: Publisher.

            In order to track sources from the internet, The DOI (Digital organizer identifier was developed) consists of a large numeric string that allow users to track information on the internet. However, the recently the DOI was replaced due to its flaws by a new alphanumeric link that enable us to track information easily with a long lasting registered link. Nevertheless, if the article does not have DOI or the new alphanumeric link we simply add the phrase “Retrieved from” plus the URL of the web page.

            The citation from web-based sources use these systems. Therefore, we have to use the following formulas:

DOI (Digital Object Identifier):

            Author, A. (Year). Name of the article. Title of Journal, Volume, page: doi 000000000/000000000000

            Author, A. (Year). Name of the article. Title of Journal, Volume, page.

            Author, A. (Year). Name of the article. Title of Journal, Volume, page. Retrieved from

American psychological association (2013). Publication Manual. Retrieved from: [Last Accessed 5 May, 2013].

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